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Opened in 1930 to house a collection of full-size reconstructions of ancient monumental buildings, the Pergamon is really a number of unique museums under a single roof, including the Antiquities Collection, the Middle East Museum, and the Museum of Islamic Art.
The star exhibit, of course, is the Pergamon Altar.
The New National Gallery (Neue Nationalgalerie) is housed in a two-part steel and glass structure built in 1968 and consisting of a square hall and a pleasing terrace containing a number of sculptures by Alexander Calder and Henry Moore.
The collection consists of numerous paintings, sculptures, and drawings of the 19th and 20th centuries including the Realists, the German school in Rome, French and German Impressionists, the Expressionists, the Bauhaus movement, and the Surrealists, as well as a good selection of American paintings.
For almost two centuries, one of its most picturesque corners, Museum Island (a UNESCO World Heritage Site), has drawn crowds of museum and gallery goers to major attractions such as the Pergamon Museum.
All told, Berlin boasts in excess of 170 museums and somewhere in the region of 300 art galleries, from large publicly owned affairs to smaller private establishments. Berlin's most famous museum - certainly one of its most popular with more than a million visitors annually - the superb Pergamon Museum is the centerpiece of the city's Museum Island district.
Highlights include its collections of textiles, photos, and prints, as well as exhibits focusing on childhood, youth culture, and religion.
Highlights include a fascinating look at the Industrial Revolution, along with a reconstructed workshop and equipment from the country's first factories.
The road transport exhibit contains a variety of bicycles, horse-drawn carts, motorcycles, and cars, while the big machines are found in the rail transportation segment, which includes locomotives and coaches dating back to 1843.
Highlights include its Dutch and Flemish paintings, particularly works by Rembrandt, Hieronymus Bosch, Van Dyck, and Rubens.
French paintings of importance are three works by Poussin, a landscape by Claude Lorrain, and pictures by George de la Tour and the Le Nain brothers from the 17th century, while German masterpieces are represented with works by Dürer, including the One of Berlin's most thought-provoking museums is an indoor-outdoor facility called the Topography of Terror (Topographie des Terrors) built on the site of the former headquarters of the Nazi's notorious SS and Gestapo.